FAQs

Find the answers to our most frequently asked questions

Practice Area Definitions: Europe

Administrative & Public Law (Andorra)


This section covers judicial review, statutory appeals, inquiries, disciplinary proceedings and non-contentious advice on the powers and administrative functions of central and local government, and other public and regulatory bodies. It includes matters relating to competitive tendering, public procurement and environmental issues. The section also includes matters relating to Human Rights law.

 

Aquaculture and Fisheries (Norway)


This section ranks those firms and individuals that can advise clients on regulatory and licensing matters and are able to offer specialist sector advice. This can include advising on regulatory matters involving wellboats. Contractual work, transactional work and litigation is also considered in this section however firms and individuals must be seen to have core knowledge in either aquaculture or traditional fisheries, or both, and be considered by clients as a go-to for this specific knowledge.

 

Arbitration (International) (Europe-wide)


This section features advice on the resolution of international disputes through arbitration. Firms ranked in the Europe-wide table must demonstrate the ability to advise on pan-European arbitrations.

 

Arbitration (International): Most in Demand Arbitrators (Europe-wide)


This section ranks those individuals who act as arbitrators on international pan-European cases and who are widely recognised as the go-to arbitrators for such cases.

 

Banking & Finance


A broad-based definition of banking transactions, which include both borrower and lender clients. The following topics are included:

- Acquisition finance: transactions involving arranging finance for acquisitions acting for either the lender or the borrower;

- Islamic Finance: Sharia-compliant work such as acquisitions, forming funds to invest in real estate and commercial properties, issuing of Sukuks;

- General bank lending: syndicated lending, structured finance, leveraged finance, NPLs

- Project finance: financing of infrastructure and industrial projects.

- Refinancing: The refinancing and restructuring of existing loans and debtor in possession financing is also included.

- Where there isn’t a dedicated Restructuring / Insolvency section, work relating to restructuring in distressed situations, bankruptcy and insolvency is also considered here.

 

Banking & Finance (Denmark/Norway)


A broad-based definition of banking transactions, which include both borrower and lender clients. The following topics are included:

- Acquisition finance: transactions involving arranging finance for acquisitions acting for either the lender or the borrower;

- Debt Capital Markets: advice on the issuing of debt securities on a stock exchange, including stand alone bond issues, MTN programmes, convertible and exchangeable bond offerings and high yield bonds.

- Islamic Finance: Sharia-compliant work such as acquisitions, forming funds to invest in real estate and commercial properties, issuing of Sukuks;

- General bank lending: syndicated lending, structured finance, leveraged finance, NPLs

- Project finance: financing of infrastructure and industrial projects.

- Refinancing: The refinancing and restructuring of existing loans and debtor in possession financing is also included.

Currently, the Denmark/Norway chapter does not feature a dedicated Capital Markets section. Therefore, work relating to Debt Capital Markets is included in the Banking & Finance section.

 

Banking & Finance (Greece)


A broad-based definition of banking transactions, which include both borrower and lender clients. The following topics are included:

- Acquisition finance: transactions involving arranging finance for acquisitions acting for either the lender or the borrower;

- Debt Capital Markets: advice on the issuing of debt securities on a stock exchange, including stand alone bond issues, MTN programmes, convertible and exchangeable bond offerings and high yield bonds.

- Equity Capital Markets: includes advice on IPOs, share buybacks, follow-on offerings, right offerings, capital increases, accelerated bookbuilds and block trades.

- Islamic Finance: Sharia-compliant work such as acquisitions, forming funds to invest in real estate and commercial properties, issuing of Sukuks;

- General bank lending: syndicated lending, structured finance, leveraged finance, NPLs

- Project finance: financing of infrastructure and industrial projects.

- Refinancing: The refinancing and restructuring of existing loans and debtor in possession financing is also included.

Currently, the Greece chapter does not feature a dedicated Capital Markets section. Therefore, work relating to Capital Markets is included in the Banking & Finance section.

 

 

Banking & Finance: Asset Finance (Ireland)


Finance linked to the purchase or construction of a distinct asset or set of assets (typically aircrafts, ships or rolling stock).

 

Banking & Finance: Financial Services Regulation  Includes work on regulatory matters in the financial services, including the implementation of new directives and national legislation, regulatory aspects of fintech and other general regulatory advice.

 


Banking & Finance: Insurance (Poland)

Ranks individuals specialising in the insurance sector.

 


Banking & Finance: Foreign (Turkey

) This subsection identifies foreign-qualified lawyers based in Turkey.

 

Banking & Finance (Switzerland)


The new Banking & Finance table covers banking transactions and general financing as well as regulations affecting banks and their products. Regulatory work includes applications of legal instruments as well as representing clients before the Swiss regulator.

 

Banking & Finance: Project Finance

Focuses on mandates relating to the financing of infrastructure, energy and industrial projects.

 

Banking & Finance: Regulatory Includes work on regulatory matters in the financial services, including the implementation of new directives and national legislation, regulatory aspects of fintech and other general regulatory advice.

 

Banking & Finance: Restructuring & Insolvency Includes advice on cases of insolvency, bankruptcy and the restructuring of distressed assets.

 

Banking & Finance: UK/US-qualified Experts (Spain) This section ranks individuals specialising in banking and finance work and with UK or US expertise, but based in the jurisdiction in which the table is featured.

 

Capital Markets


Chambers guides cover key areas of capital markets either as distinct tables or under the wider umbrella. The areas include Debt & Equity, Derivatives, Securitisation, and Structured finance.

 

Equity Capital Markets includes advice on IPOs, share buybacks, follow-on offerings, right offerings, capital increases, accelerated bookbuilds and block trades.

 

Debt Capital Markets involves advice on the issuing of debt securities on a stock exchange, including stand alone bond issues, MTN programmes, convertible and exchangeable bond offerings and high yield bonds.

 

Derivatives includes the regulatory and transactional legal advice regarding derivatives products. These include exchange-traded derivatives, OTC derivatives, securitised derivatives and interest rate derivatives.

 

Securitisation includes mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities. It also includes structured finance, which encompasses CDOs (both cash and synthetic), repackagings, and hybrid synthetic and structured note products.

 

Capital Markets: Debt Debt Capital Markets involves advice on the issuing of debt securities on a stock exchange, including stand alone bond issues, MTN programmes, convertible and exchangeable bond offerings and high yield bonds.

 

Capital Markets: Derivatives Derivatives includes the regulatory and transactional legal advice regarding derivatives products. These include exchange-traded derivatives, OTC derivatives, securitised derivatives and interest rate derivatives.

 

Capital Markets: Equity Equity Capital Markets includes advice on IPOs, share buybacks, follow-on offerings, right offerings, capital increases, accelerated bookbuilds and block trades.

 

Capital Markets: Securitisation Securitisation includes mortgage-backed securities and asset-backed securities. It also includes structured finance, which encompasses CDOs (both cash and synthetic), repackagings, and hybrid synthetic and structured note products.

 

Capital Markets: Structured Finance Structured finance, which encompasses CDOs (both cash and synthetic), repackagings, and hybrid synthetic and structured note products.

 

Capital Markets: Foreign (Turkey) This subsection identifies foreign-qualified lawyers based in Turkey.

 

Capital Markets: UK/US-qualified Experts (Spain) This section ranks individuals specialising in capital markets work and with UK or US expertise, but based in the jurisdiction in which the table is featured.

 

Commercial Contracts This section covers advice on all aspects of logistics, distribution and franchise contracts and agreements in various industries. This includes assistance with service, manufacturing and agency agreements, as well as regulatory and compliance advice.

 


Competition/Antitrust


This section encompasses contentious and non-contentious matters arising under domestic and international competition law, including cartels, abuse of a dominant market position and merger control. Unless a more specific subsection exists, areas such as antitrust, state aid and public procurement are also considered here.

 


Competition/Antitrust: Public Procurement (Norway)


This sub-section ranks lawyers who advise companies and government bodies on the acquisition of goods or services by governmental entities. Areas covered may include education, healthcare, social housing, transport and infrastructure.

 


Competition/European Law


This section encompasses contentious and non-contentious matters arising under EU, domestic and international competition law, including cartels, abuse of a dominant market position and merger control. Unless a more specific subsection exists, areas such as antitrust, state aid and public procurement are also considered here.

 


Competition/European Law: Lawyers Based Abroad

In some jurisdiction, the Competition / European Law chapter includes a subsection which lists lawyers with active expertise in competition law in this jurisdiction but are based elsewhere (generally Brussels).

 


Competition/European Law: Public Procurement (Denmark)


This sub-section ranks lawyers who advise companies and government bodies on the acquisition of goods or services by governmental entities. Areas covered may include education, healthcare, social housing, transport and infrastructure.

 


Competition/European Law: State Aid (Belgium)


This subsection ranks lawyers specialising in antitrust work separately to those included in the broader Competition/European Law ranking table.

 


Competition: Domestic (Belgium)


This subsection ranks lawyers and individuals active in the domestic competition market and appearing before local competition authorities, separately to the broader Competition/EU Law ranking table. The distinction is made in jurisdictions which are a hub for international competition activity, and where there is a clear domestic market which is separate to that. The ranking of a firm or individual in this subsection does not exclude them from the possibility of achieving a ranking in the main table, and vice versa.


Competition: EU


This section focuses on lawyers based in Brussels and representing clients in competition/antitrust matters before the European Commission, rather than before any national authorities.

 


Compliance


This section includes: design and implementation of corporate compliance programmes, anti-corruption legislation, international sanctions, crime prevention, data protection compliance.
In some jurisdictions, this practice area also falls under “Corporate Compliance” (Spain) or Corporate Compliance and Investigations (France). See below for the definition of Corporate Investigations.

 


Construction


Construction covers contractual advisor work within the construction industry for both the suppliers (eg developers, contractors, engineers and architects), and those clients employing these types of companies eg corporates or state authorities on their building plans. Our construction sections cover both litigious and non-litigious matters.

 


Corporate Investigations


This section ranks firms and individuals involved in advising corporates on, and compliance with, investigations concerning white-collar crime, anti-corruption legislation and international sanctions. The firms and lawyers may also be engaged to conduct investigations and prepare reports for management.

This section does NOT include White-Collar Crime litigation, nor does it include investigations that are inherent to bankruptices or competition cases.

 


Corporate Compliance & Investigations (France)


 

This section ranks firms and individuals that advise corporate clients on corporate governance, anti-corruption, anti-bribery, anti-money laundering, fraud, market abuse, insider trading, roles and responsibilities of management and executives, etc. The law firms involvement can be training, implementing compliance programs and preventative measures, internal investigations and external investigations (at pre-trial stage). Compliance programs and investigations that relate to other specific sections in the guide (such as Banking & Finance: Financial Services Regulation or Competition/European Law) should be kept to those sections.

 


Corporate/Commercial


This section ranks a broad range of mandates for commercial clients. This can include M&A transactions, corporate advisory work, corporate governance, corporate restructuring, and related financing arrangements. Unless a more specialised section exists in the specific jurisdiction, this section can also include mandates relating to banking and finance, capital markets and dispute resolution, as well as sector-specific practice (e.g. real estate). This practice area does not include private client work.

 

 


Corporate/M&A


This broad category covers both public company and private equity (including venture capital) matters. The chapter includes company acquisitions, dispositions and capitalisations, entity selection and formation, operating and partnership agreements, securities and governance matters. Also covers those transactions designed to help restructuring within companies and their subsidiaries by change of ownership. However in jurisdictions where another more specialised section covers any of the work mentioned above, that work should be submitted in that section, and not in Corporate / M&A (e.g. Equity capital markets work in Capital Markets, venture capital in Private Equity, financing work in Banking & Finance, transactions involving real estate assets in Real Estate)

Priority is placed on primary representatives, those acting for buyers and sellers.

 


Corporate/M&A (Denmark)


This section looks to rank firms that represent buyers, sellers, investors and company owners/shareholders in mergers, acquisitions, divestments, private equity transactions, equity capital markets transactions, corporate restructuring, joint ventures, commercial agreements and corporate governance matters. Also includes mandates with regard to establishing new corporate entities.

This section does not include banking and debt capital markets transactions, transactions involving real estate or energy assets, and any form of dispute resolution.

Currently, the Denmark chapter does not feature a dedicated Capital Markets section. Therefore, work relating to Equity Capital Markets is included in the Corporate/M&A section.

 


Corporate/M&A (Norway/Ireland)


This section looks to rank firms that represent buyers, sellers, investors and company owners/shareholders in mergers, acquisitions, divestments, private equity transactions, corporate restructuring, joint ventures, commercial agreements and corporate governance matters. Also includes mandates with regard to establishing new corporate entities.

This section does not include banking and capital markets transactions, transactions involving real estate or energy assets, and any form of dispute resolution.

This section has an Equity Capital Markets sub-section. All ECM work should be included in a separate submission for this sub-section.

 


Corporate/M&A (Sweden)


This section looks to rank firms that represent buyers, sellers, investors and company owners/shareholders in mergers, acquisitions, divestments, corporate restructuring, joint ventures, commercial agreements and corporate governance matters. Also includes mandates with regard to establishing new corporate entities.

This section does not include private equity transactions, banking and capital markets transactions, transactions involving real estate or energy assets, and any form of dispute resolution.

This section has sub-sections for Equity Capital Markets and Private Equity. All ECM and PE work should be included in separate submissions for these sub-sections.

 

Corporate/M&A: High-end Capability We make this distinction ourselves based on the jurisdiction.

For Germany, High-End Capability typically relates to matters valued at EUR500 million.

Corporate/M&A: Foreign (Turkey) This subsection identifies foreign-qualified lawyers based in Turkey.

Corporate/M&A: Mid-Market We make this distinction ourselves based on the jurisdiction.

For Germany, Mid-Market typically relates to matters valued below EUR500 million.

 


Crime (Andorra)


The crime section concentrates on cases of white-collar crime but also includes other cases of serious crime.

 


Data Protection


Data Protection covers regulatory advice on data protection and privacy compliance, cases of data security breaches, representation of clients in investigations, enforcement actions or litigation relating to data protection and privacy. Work of an international nature can include advising clients with multinational operations on data security issues relating to cross-border transfers of data, such as in large-scale outsourcing transactions involving a number of countries, and on global or multi-jurisdictional privacy compliance programmes.

 


Dispute Resolution


The work covers the full course of a dispute such as pre-trial negotiations, documentation and preparation for trial, summary judgement motions, trial, appeals and enforcement proceedings.

Priority is given to mandates that result in litigation / alternative dispute resolution, rather than to advisory or preparatory work. Chambers Europe focuses on commercial disputes, arbitration and white-collar crime (in some jurisdictions this is a separate section or subsection). Alternative dispute resolution, involving non-court mediation is also featured[Unknown A1] .

In jurisdictions where there are also separate rankings for more specific areas of litigation (e.g. IP, construction etc.) work relating to these areas will be primarily considered in these more specific areas rather than in the general Dispute Resolution table.

 


Dispute Resolution: Arbitration


This section features advice on the resolution of disputes by one or more neutral parties, either an arbitrator or an arbitration panel.

 


Dispute Resolution: Arbitration Counsel


This section features those lawyers that specialise as counsel on dispute resolution through arbitration.

 

 


Dispute Resolution: Healthcare Litigation (Ireland)


This sub-section covers all disputes faced by hospitals, public and private sector providers, medical institutions and healthcare professionals. This includes product liability cases arising from medical devices defects.

This sub-section does not include representing insurers or insurance law, or life sciences mandates.

 

 


Dispute Resolution: Most in Demand Arbitrator

s

This section features individuals that specialise in acting as arbitrators and are highly sought after for this work.

 


Dispute Resolution: Professional Discipline (Ireland)


This sub-section ranks firms and lawyers who advise individuals, corporations or professional bodies in relation to professional regulatory matters, including fitness-to-practice investigations, disciplinary proceedings and the development of codes of practice.

 


Dispute Resolution: Supreme Court Litigation (Netherlands)


The subsection features leading litigators that are able to represent clients in the Supreme Court.

 

 


Employment


Covers both contentious and non-contentious employment matters relating to day-to-day business issues as well as mergers and takeovers. Includes employment litigation related to sex, race, age discrimination. Issues relating to employee immigration, transfer of employees, working hours and pensions are also considered in this section, unless a more specific section exists within the jurisdiction.

 


Employment: Mainly Plaintiff (Ireland)


This sub-section covers the same contentious areas as ‘Employment’ but focuses on the representation of claimants.

 


Employment: Pensions


This section focuses on lawyers who are specialised in the area of pensions and includes transactional work (transfer of pensions as part of corporate transactions), pensions disputes, professional negligence and changes to benefit structures.  Predominantly firms acting for employers or trustees.

 


Energy


Includes regulatory and transactional work across the energy sector, covering renewables, oil & gas and other natural resources. Work can include transactions involving energy plants and energy companies, licensing and permitting matters, the construction and development of energy infrastructure (e.g. wind farms) and contentious energy-related cases. In general, project finance work should be submitted in Banking & Finance rather than in Energy.

 


Energy & Natural Resources


Includes regulatory and transactional work across the energy sector, covering renewables, oil & gas and other natural resources. Work can include transactions involving energy plants and energy companies, licensing and permitting matters, the construction and development of energy infrastructure (e.g. wind farms) and contentious energy-related cases. In general, project finance work should be submitted in Banking & Finance rather than in Energy & Natural Resources.

 

 


Energy & Natural Resources: Regulatory (Netherlands)


Subsection focusing on the regulatory aspects of energy law. This includes regulatory advice on permitting and licensing as well as representation in contentious regulatory cases.

 


Energy & Natural Resources: Transactional (Netherlands)


Subsection focusing on the transactional aspects of energy law, particularly transactions involving energy plants or energy projects.  Work submitted here should demonstrate a strong focus on the energy sector.

 


Energy: Electricity (Norway)


This section covers regulatory, transactional and contentious mandates across the energy and natural resources sector (excluding oil & gas). Work can include transactions involving energy plants and energy companies, licensing and permitting matters, the construction and development of energy infrastructure (e.g. wind farms) and contentious energy-related cases. In general, project finance work should be submitted in the Banking & Finance section.

 


Energy: Oil & Gas (Norway)


This section covers all regulatory, transactional and contentious mandates across the oil and gas sector. Encompasses upstream and downstream work including exploration, infrastructure and pipeline developments and service contracts, royalties, taxation, licensing and operation agreements.

 

 


Environment


Environment work includes regulatory compliance, litigation and enforcement actions relating to air, water, wetlands, waste and endangered species. Matters relating to the environmental impact of construction and development projects, consumer products, environmentally detrimental incidents and pollution are also considered here.

 


General Business Law


General Business Law encompasses a range of commercial law fields relevant to high-end business users. The core focuses on corporate/commercial law, but in lieu of separate practice areas General Business Law can also cover many areas, including dispute resolution, banking & finance, and sector-specific practice areas.

 


General Business Law: Dispute Resolution


Encompasses all aspects of commercial dispute resolution, including M&A, tax, banking, employment and IP disputes. Contentious cases can involve litigation or alternative methods of dispute resolution, such as arbitration or mediation.



General Business Law: Law Firms (Monaco)


This section focuses only on lawyers who are admitted to the Monégasque Bar.


General Business Law: Legal Advisors (Monaco)


This section focuses on lawyers who are based in Monaco but are not members of the Monégasque Bar.


Healthcare


The Healthcare section relates to the providers of Healthcare, such as hospitals and other medical institutions, as well as work relating to medical devices and technology. Work can include transactions involving hospitals and care homes, procurement, regulatory advice, operational licensing and contracts. This section will prioritise those firms and individuals that demonstrate an in-depth knowledge of the healthcare sector and are sought after specifically for their industry expertise.

 


Healthcare & Life Sciences (Switzerland)


The Life Sciences table relates to pharma, biotech and medical devices companies. Work should include transactions, regulatory, product liability, procurement, contracts and clinical trials. The patent litigation sub-table covers patent enforcement, patent infringement, nullity proceedings and injunction requests.

The Healthcare table relates to providers of healthcare, including hospitals and care homes. Work should include transactions, regulatory, procurement and contracts. This section also includes health insurance mandates.

When submitting to Healthcare & Life Sciences in Switzerland, you should upload separate submissions for the Healthcare and Life Sciences sections. With that in mind, please upload only one submission for both Life Sciences and Life Sciences: Patent Litigation.

 


Insurance


Insurance includes both contentious and non-contentious insurance and reinsurance matters. On the contentious side, we feature coverage claims litigation, broker`s negligence and both `facultative` and `treaty` reinsurance disputes. There is also an element of professional negligence issues arising from insurance disputes. On the non-contentious side, we include all regulatory issues.

 


Insurance (Ireland)


This section covers non-contentious insurance and reinsurance matters, including regulatory issues.

 


Insurance: Dispute Resolution (Ireland)


This section covers contentious insurance and reinsurance matters, including coverage claims litigation, broker’s negligence and both ‘facultative’ and ‘treaty’ reinsurance disputes. There is also an element of professional negligence issues arising from insurance disputes.

 

 


Intellectual Property


Intellectual Property covers advisory work and disputes related to patent, copyright and trademarks. Litigation concerning trade secrets also features.

Priority for ranking is given to those firms and individuals who attract clients specifically for their expertise in this area.

 


Intellectual Property (Iceland)


Intellectual Property covers advisory work and disputes related to patent, copyright and trademarks. Litigation concerning trade secrets also features. This section also accepts TMT and data protection mandates.

 


Intellectual Property & TMT (Luxembourg; Romania)

This chapters combines mandates relating to Intellectual Property (see separate definition) and TMT (see separate definition).

 


Intellectual Property: Copyrights

Subsection dedicated to ranking individuals specialising in copyright.

 

 


Intellectual Property: General – Mostly Trade Mark/Copyright (Netherlands)

This includes advice on ‘soft IP’ matters including advisory and litigation work relating to trademarks and copyright. Priority for ranking is given to those firms and individuals who attract clients specifically for their expertise in this area. On the litigation side, priority is given to those firms who are sought after for first instance proceedings.

 


Intellectual Property: Patent (Netherlands)


This section ranks those firms and individuals offering specialist advice on patents, including representation in patent litigation.

 


International Trade/WTO

This section covers classic trade cases such as anti-dumping, countervailing duties, export control and other customs / tariff classifications and regulatory work. Lawyers also advise on matters relating the WTO.


Investment Funds


This section ranks those firms and individuals advising in the world of investment funds. It covers work on behalf of sponsors and institutional investors, including fund formation, fund raising, investments, asset management regulatory matters, hybrid funds, fund-of-funds and spin-outs.  It does not include transactional work, disputes or the acquisition of assets (which should be included in Corporate/Disputes/Real Estate).  In jurisdictions where there is also a Private Equity section, work relating to fund formation and structuring should be included in the Investment Funds section.

 


Investment Funds/Financial Services (Ireland)


This section ranks those firms and individuals advising in the world of investment funds. It covers work on behalf of sponsors and institutional investors, including fund formation, fund raising, investments, asset management regulatory matters, hybrid funds, fund-of-funds and spin-outs.  It does not include transactional work, disputes or the acquisition of assets.

 


Life Sciences


This section ranks firms and individuals with in-depth knowledge of Life Sciences, and is heavily based on regulatory work. Life Sciences primarily refers to work in the pharmaceutial sector, and work relating to biotechnology can also be incorporated here. Work includes advising companies on new regulations and directives, clinical trials and approval work, and the procurement of Life Sciences products. Depending on the jurisdiction, examples of work can also include some transactional work and IP litigation, however this should be presented as part of a broader, specialist Life Sciences practice. In jurisdictions where other sections already exist to cover a specific aspect of this work (e.g. Intellectual Property: Patent), the Life Sciences submission should focus less on this aspect, as it is being assessed elsewhere.


Life Sciences: Patent Litigation


This subsection focuses on those firms and individuals that specialise in patent litigation in the Life Sciences.


Life Sciences: Regulatory


This subsection focuses on those firms and individuals that specialise in providing regulatory advice in the Life Sciences.


Life Sciences: EU (Belgium)


This section focuses on law firms and lawyers based in Belgium but advising clients on European Union regulations, rather than domestic or national matters.


Life Sciences: Domestic (Belgium)


This section focuses on law firms and lawyers based in Belgium but focusing predominantly on national legislation, rather than European Union regulations.

 


Litigation (France)


In general, our broad definition of Litigation covers the full course of a dispute such as pre-trial negotiations, preparation for trial, trial, appeals and enforcement proceedings. Litigation in France covers mainly commercial disputes. White-collar crime cases and arbitration mandates should be included in the respective sections (WCC and International Arbitration).

 


Private Equity


This section covers firms and lawyers providing mostly transactional advice for private equity clients, such as direct investments into private companies, buyouts of public companies (MBO, MBI, BIMBO), secondary transactions, take-privates, PIPEs and pre-IPO investments. Venture capital investments and transactions and work on behalf of funds, investors, venture capital firms, private equity firms and financial institutions are also looked at by researchers.

 

 


Private Equity (France)


 

This section focuses on the transactional aspect of private equity funds work. It takes into account LBO, M&A and recapitalisation matters at both the high-end and mid-market level.

 In France, Venture capital work should be included on the submissions for the Venture Capital subsection.

 


Private Equity: Buyouts (Acting for Management) (France)


This section focuses on the representation of management and executives in private equity transactions and the negotiation, structuring and implementation of management packages.

 


Private Equity: Fund Formation (France)


This section sections broadly includes work covering the entire life cycle of a fund. More emphasis is placed on fund formation work, and sponsor-side representation. The capacity to provide regulatory and relevant tax advice is also considered. This section focuses on private equity funds but can also include hedge funds, real estate funds, infrastructure funds and funds of funds.

 


Project Finance

Focuses on mandates relating to the financing of infrastructure, energy and industrial projects.

 


Projects


The projects chapters focus on the development; financing (limited and non-recourse); refinancing and acquisition / divestitures of large projects that arise from the capital intensive infrastructure and energy markets. Clients in this sector include sponsors, lenders, project originators and multilateral agencies and development banks. In the energy sector, we include advice on the development of refineries, pipelines, LNG and petrochemical terminals, power plants and wind power, waste-to-energy and hydro-wave technology.

The chapter also features infrastructure matters such as toll road and bridge financing; rail and light rail systems; water desalination plants as well as state sponsored programmes (PPP / PFI) such as hospitals, schools, housing and prisons.

 


Projects & Energy

This chapter focuses on the development, acquisition and divestitures of large projects within the infrastructure and energy markets. Clients in this sector include sponsors, lenders, project originators and multilateral agencies and development banks. This section includes the development of refineries, pipelines, LNG and petrochemical terminals, power plants and wind power, waste-to-energy and hydropower technology. It also covers exploration, licensing, operation agreements and regulatory compliance across conventional, renewable and nuclear energy, as well as mining and minerals. It also features private and state-sponsored infrastructure projects, including motorway, toll road and bridge developments, rail and light rail systems and water treatment plants. It also includes the development of social infrastructure projects, such as hospitals, schools, housing and prisons.

[No rankings for main table in France  – Rankings only in the subsections Domestic, Domestic: Finance, International and International: Finance]


Projects & Energy: Domestic (France) This subsection ranks firms and individuals based in France advising on energy developments and transactions, as well as infrastructure projects and tenders. This subsection is not included in Chambers Global.

Projects & Energy: Domestic: Finance (France) This subsection ranks individuals based in France advising on the financing and refinancing of infrastructure and energy projects within France. If the firm handles lender-side project finance in PPP projects, this kind of work should be included in the project finance submissions. This subsection is not included in Chambers Global.

Projects & Energy: International (France) This subsection ranks firms and individuals based in France advising on infrastructure and energy projects outside of France. This subsection is included in Chambers Global.

Projects & Energy: International: Finance (France) This subsection ranks individuals based in France advising on the financing and refinancing of infrastructure and energy projects outside of France. This subsection is included in Chambers Global.

 


Public Law


The work usually involves advising authorities and companies from regulated industries on constitutional, administrative, subsidy and state aid issues, as well as planning and environmental projects and procurement law.

 


Public Law (France)


The main Public Law table covers administrative law. Work should include administrative disputes and litigation before Conseil d'Etat. It can also include mandates relating to competitive tendering and public procurement if acting for the public bodies. Constitutional law could also be included in this table.

 

Public Law: Public Contract (France) This subsection covers advice to private clients on concessions, PPP and public procurement.

 

Public Law: Planning and Environment This section focuses on Public Law work which is specific to planning or environment issues. This includes zoning, planning permission and related environmental considerations. Please note that work relating to the construction of energy plants should be submitted under Energy. Work put forward for this section must have Public Law aspects to it.

 


Public Procurement


This section ranks law firms and lawyers who advise corporations and government bodies on the acquisition of goods or services by governmental entities. Areas covered may include education, healthcare, social housing, transport and infrastructure.

 


Real Estate


Ranks firms and individuals focusing on real estate law. Strong focus on transactions involving significant Real Estate assets and portfolios such as office buildings, residential developments and retail units. Also include matters relating to leasing and real estate finance. Where there isn’t a more specific construction ranking available, construction and development work also falls under real estate. Some examples of structuring and transactional advice provided to REITs, transactions involving real estate holding companies and regulatory advice can also be included among the examples of work for this section.

 


Real Estate: Construction


Construction covers contractual advisor work within the construction industry for both the suppliers (eg developers, contractors, engineers and architects), and those clients employing these types of companies eg corporates or state authorities on their building plans.

Construction law can broadly be divided into non-contentious and contentious issues. The first involves lawyers helping clients through the procurement, regulatory and contractual stages. The second sees them resolving disputes when things go wrong.


Real Estate: Finance


Real estate finance is the financing of the purchase of real estate assets, or the financing of the construction of buildings. Real estate Lawyers do not need to act exclusively for lenders but should have a healthy lender client base which gives them the volume of work in this field. Some of these lawyers will also handle aspects of complex debt capital markets - such as securitisation - but the decision to include them in a real estate table will be based on their understanding of the underlying asset.


Real Estate: Leading Notaries (Netherlands)


This section focuses on notaries advising clients on the sale and purchase of properties as well as foreclosure sales and split ownership.


Regulatory: Agro/Food (Europe-wide)


EU regulations concerning food packaging, food contact, international (WHO and UN) food standards, labelling, use of additives and customer safety.  Also involves use of pesticides and fungicides, but not broader REACH work.  Includes advisory and contentious work.


Regulatory: Environment (Europe-wide)


Focuses on compliance with EU-level environmental regulations, such as REACH, RoHS, WEEE, single-use plastics, biocide regulations and chemical classifications.  Includes advisory and contentious work.


Regulatory: Government & Public Affairs (Europe-wide)


Lobbying work (i.e. advising clients on EU policy and trying to get regulations changed to suit clients), Brexit advisory matters, finding loopholes in current regulations, often involving work for governments and embassies as well as for private companies.

 


Restructuring/Insolvency


This table ranks firms and individuals advising on cases of insolvency, bankruptcy and the restructuring of distressed assets. Restructuring work should be limited to situations of financial distress and work aimed at avoiding liquidation or insolvency. This can include administration, receivership, distressed M&A and pre-pack sales.  General corporate restructuring should be submitted in Corporate / M&A. The restructuring of financial arrangements or instruments should be submitted in Banking & Finance.

 


Restructuring/Insolvency: Administration


Focuses on individuals who act as administrators for insolvent companies.  Also includes work by court appointed bankruptcy trustees.

 


Restructuring/Insolvency (Sweden)


This table ranks firms advising on cases of insolvency, bankruptcy and the restructuring of distressed assets. Restructuring work should be limited to situations of financial distress and work aimed at avoiding liquidation or insolvency. This can include administration, receivership, distressed M&A and pre-pack sales.  General corporate restructuring should be submitted in Corporate / M&A. The restructuring of financial arrangements or instruments should be submitted in Banking & Finance.

Please note that the individuals’ table focuses on lawyers who handle out-of-court restructuring and insolvency mandates.

 


Restructuring/Insolvency: Trustees/Administrators (Sweden)


This sub-section ranks individuals who handle in-court bankruptcy and insolvency proceedings.

 


Shipping


Shipping includes wet-shipping and dry-shipping cases:

- Wet-shipping: Refers to incidents and issues arising while at sea. Includes accidents, collisions, salvage and environmental liabilities.

- Dry-shipping: Refers to matters arising while not at sea. Includes contractual arrangements for construction, financing and registration of vessels, customs and licensing, and documentation relating to charter-parties and bills of lading. Also includes contentious matters such as ownership rights, contractual breaches, insurance and reinsurance, ship arrests and the commissioning/decommissioning of vessels.

For a firm or an individual to achieve a ranking in this section, they must be seen to have core shipping expertise and be considered by clients as a go-to for specific shipping knowledge.

 

 


Shipping (International Firms) (Greece)


This section focuses on non-finance mandates. Includes all corporate and commercial agreements specific to the shipping sector, such as contractual arrangements for construction, registration, purchase and sale of vessels, customs and licensing, and documentation relating to charter-parties and bills of lading. It also assesses all contentious mandates specific to the shipping sector. This includes both wet shipping (incidents and issues arising while at sea, such as accidents, collisions, salvage and environmental liabilities) and dry shipping (such as ownership rights, contractual breaches, insurance and reinsurance, ship arrests and the commissioning/decommissioning of vessels) mandates.

 


Shipping: Corporate/Commercial (Norway)


This sub-section focuses on all corporate and commercial agreements specific to the shipping sector, such as contractual arrangements for construction, registration, purchase and sale of vessels, customs and licensing, and documentation relating to charter-parties and bills of lading.

 


Shipping: Dispute Resolution (Norway)


This sub-section focuses on all contentious mandates specific to the shipping sector. This includes both wet shipping (incidents and issues arising while at sea, such as accidents, collisions, salvage and environmental liabilities) and dry shipping (such as ownership rights, contractual breaches, insurance and reinsurance, ship arrests and the commissioning/decommissioning of vessels) mandates.

 


Shipping: Finance (Norway)


This sub-section focuses on all finance mandates specific to the shipping sector, such as financing agreements for building or acquiring vessels, refinancing of debt related to the industry, transfer of loan portfolios relating to the industry, creation of mortgages, and sale and leaseback transactions.

 


Shipping: Finance


- There may be a crossover with other sections we do here, such as Banking & Finance or Restructuring & Insolvency

WORK:

- financing agreements for building or acquiring vessels

- refinancing of debt related to the industry

- transfer of loan portfolios relating to the industry

- creation of mortgages

- sale and leaseback transactions

 


Shipping: Finance (International Firms) (Greece)


This section focuses on all finance mandates specific to the shipping sector, such as financing agreements for building or acquiring vessels, refinancing of debt related to the industry, transfer of loan portfolios relating to the industry, creation of mortgages, and sale and leaseback transactions.

 


Sport

This section ranks those who have a demonstrable commitment to the sports sector, primarily focusing on commercial, regulatory and contentious matters within the field. Clients in this sector include athletes, federations, sports associations and clubs, managers and governing bodies, as well as broadcasters, sponsors and agencies. This section includes, but is not limited to, media rights, arbitration, transfers and contract issues, disciplinary actions, anti-doping, governance and regulatory issues.


Tax


This section focuses on corporate tax, any tax work for private clients should be submitted to the HNWI guide.  The work includes the taxation of transactions, disputes and regulatory matters such as double tax treaties, transfer pricing, VAT, customs duties and the taxation of employee benefits.

Tax: Consultants

This section ranks individuals who are not qualified lawyers (i.e. not a member of the Bar in the relevant jurisdiction) but are tax advisors.


Tax: Lawyers

Usually appears in jurisdictions with a Consultants/Advisors sub-table to distinguish individuals who are admitted to the Bar in that jurisdiction.


Tax: VAT (Belgium)

Specifically focuses on individual lawyers specialised in VAT matters.



TMT


TMT stands for Technology, Media and Telecommunications. This broad section incorporates work relating to these three areas of law. Technology includes outsourcing between corporates and suppliers of IT services, IT procurement and regulatory matters in the sector. The section also considers M&A activity in the sector but places priority on those firms and individuals that demonstrate a specialised knowledge in the requirements of the sector. Media includes contentious and non-contentious advertising and marketing matters as well as activity relating to the Film & TV, music, publishing and theatre industries. This includes production, financing and distribution aspects. Telecommunications includes transactional and litigation advice to telecoms companies and wireless operators, and the regulatory issues that such companies face. Other matters include interconnection and resales laws, multimedia agreements and licensing activity. Unless there is a more specific chapter, Data Protection is also included in the TMT chapter. This covers regulatory advice on data protection and privacy compliance, cases of data security breaches, representation of clients in investigations, enforcement actions or litigation relating to data protection and privacy. Work of an international nature can include advising clients with multinational operations on data security issues relating to cross-border transfers of data, such as in large-scale outsourcing transactions involving a number of countries, and on global or multi-jurisdictional privacy compliance programmes.

 

TMT: Data Protection

Data Protection covers regulatory advice on data protection and privacy compliance, cases of data security breaches, representation of clients in investigations, enforcement actions or litigation relating to data protection and privacy. Work of an international nature can include advising clients with multinational operations on data security issues relating to cross-border transfers of data, such as in large-scale outsourcing transactions involving a number of countries, and on global or multi-jurisdictional privacy compliance programmes.

 

TMT: Information Technology

Information Technology focuses on the start-up, development and finance of technology-based businesses, advising start-up or later stage enterprises, venture capital investors, and other financial investors. Issues include private and public capital raisings, joint venture agreements, share listings, corporate governance and M&A.

 

TMT: IT & IT Outsourcing

IT & Outsourcing includes outsourcing between corporates and suppliers of IT services, IT procurement and regulatory matters in the sector. The section also considers M&A activity in the sector but places priority on those firms and individuals that demonstrate a specialised knowledge in the requirements of the sector.

TMT: Media

Media includes contentious and non-contentious advertising and marketing matters as well as activity relating to the Film & TV, music, publishing and theatre industries. This includes production, financing and distribution aspects.

TMT: Telecommunications

Telecommunications includes transactional and litigation advice to telecoms companies and wireless operators, and the regulatory issues that such companies face. Other matters include interconnection and resales laws, multimedia agreements and licensing activity.

 


Transportation (Sweden)


Transportation is a broad industry category incorporating work revolving around shipping, aviation and road transportation. Matters include transactional, litigation and regulatory advice.

All insurance mandates should be included in the separate ‘Insurance’ section.

 

Transportation: Aviation

This section covers a broad range of work carried out by lawyers for clients in the aviation and related industries. Matters include transactional and regulatory advice, as well as insurance and non-insurance related disputes, including commercial and non-commercial aviation accidents.

 

Transportation: Shipping [[See above “Shipping”]]

 


White-Collar Crime


This section covers in-court criminal proceedings that have to do with corruption and financial crimes mainly. Matters include tax offences, money laundering, fraud, professional negligence, bribery, corruption and environmental crime. WCC covers work on behalf of corporate clients as well as private clients.

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